Attributions of Academic Performance among Third Year and Fourth Year Biology ; Accepted date: October 13, ; Published date: October 20, This attribution theory was developed within social psychology as a means of. The study aims to identify the effects of love relationships' on the academic performance of students who are studying in the Philippines and. moderate dating activities had an estimated positive impact. academic achievement and romantic relationship in early adolescence. Quatman multiple times but the definition of gang activities seems to have differed across surveys from.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The academic performance of the students were measured in terms of test, projects, workbooks, and laboratory experiments, class participation, and attendance.
The researcher made closed-form questionnaire checklist that was categorized in terms of the ability, the effort, luck or the task difficulty was use to evaluate the attribution in academic performance of the students. In order to determine if there were significant difference in the attribution of the students when they were taken according to their year level, the mean frequency, mean percentage, Mann-Whitney U-test, two-sampled test set at 0.
The result of the study revealed that the Third Year biology major students attributed their academic performance to effort which was shown to have the highest percentage attribution and luck which was shown to have the least percentage attribution in the overall rank. The result revealed further, that there was a significant difference in the attributions of academic performance for third year and fourth year biology major students in terms of test, while the results for projects, workbooks and laboratory experiment and class participation and attendance categories was found out to have a significant difference in the attribution for the academic performance of the third and fourth year biology major students.
Keywords Attributions ; Academic performance; Biology Introduction The academic achievements of the students are believed to be greatly influence by the probability and causes of their success and failure [ 12 ]. Banks and Woolfson [ 3 ] further explain that, an attributions can have a significant effect on academic achievement of students especially with those experiencing learning difficulties thus, these students will more likely to display negative attributions than their peers.
In this process, the individuals try to decide on the causal factors of an event or consequence. Rania N et al. Cooper and Burger [ 6 ] that, Weiner et al. Two dimensions were said to underlie these categories: Empirical studies supporting this conceptualization have frequently been reported [ 910 ].
Other research [ 611 - 13 ] indicates that beliefs about personal efficacy may be important in determining behavior. In relation to this, Dinah concluded that, availability of text books, laboratory apparatus and other learning resources contribute significantly to the performance of students in Biology examination. He added that, students with positive attitude towards the subject register better performance than those who had a negative attitude.
Those with positive attitude are motivates to work hard and this is reflected in the good marks scored in the examination. However, a student who fails in the learning field is disappointed and dissatisfied. This potent, cogent but rather confusing subject deserves some elucidation. It is against this background that the researcher picks up the challenge and seeks to provide empirical solutions to this pressing issue especially by obtaining information from nature subjects.
Furthermore, he added that people try to determine why people do what they do, i. Forming attributions can only then explain a behavior or an event [ 15 ].
An attribution has two primary meanings. The first refers to explanations of behavior and it usually answers to why questions while, the second one refers to inferences or ascriptions such as inferring traits from behaviour or ascribing blame to a person. The common meanings between the two are the process of assigning an attribution as an explanation to behaviour was assigned to its cause.
However, in attribution as inference, a quality or attribute is assigned to the agent on the basis of an observed behaviour. The behaviour and attitude of group members or of the students was also affected by the climate of the organizations or of the school.
Thus academic performance of the students was also affected. Loukas and Murphy further explained that, climate includes atmosphere, culture, values, resources, social networks as well as interpersonal and instructional dimensions of the organizations.
School climate is a complex construct used wherin the characteristics of interactions between adults and students in school was described. Choi added that growing cross cultural evidence suggests that East Asians are less likely to show the correspondence bias, or a preference for explanations of behavior in terms of traits, dispositions, or other internal attributes of the target.
However, it appears not to be the caused by an absence of dispositional thinking in East Asian cultures. Consequently, East Asians are more likely than Western people to avoid the correspondence bias as long as situational constraints are salient. In the study conducted by Pekrun R et al. Emotional diversity in academic settings should be acknowledged in order to address the full range of emotions experienced by students at school and in university.
Weinburg M et al. Prior academic experiences was also considered a significant predictors of attitudes; students who received lower General Point Average or GPAs in previous science courses have more positive attitudes towards biology laboratory compared with the students with higher General Point Average or GPAs. Yumusak N et al. Objectives of The Study The purpose of this study was ascertaining the attributions of academic performance among biology major students in the third and fourth year level at the College of Education, West Visayas State University.
More specifically, it attempted to determine what do students attribute their academic performance as measured by test, projects, workbooks, laboratory experiments, class participation, and attendance when classified by year level and when taken as an entire group; and test the difference in the attribution when the students were taken according to their year level.
Statement of the problem The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attributions of academic performance of third year and fourth year biology major students. More specifically, it attempted to provide answers to the following questions: To what do students attribute their academic performances as measured by test, projects, workbooks, laboratory experiments, class participation and attendance when classified by year level and when taken as an entire group?
Is there a significant difference in the attribution when the students were taken according to their year level? Statement of the hypothesis 1. The Biology major students on their third and fourth years rely on their best efforts and abilities in the accomplishment of their academic tasks. She stated that rewards are the things which are received and give benefit to the receiver. Meanwhile, costs are the things which are lost at the course of giving sources.
Cost is associated with the giver of sources. It also proposes two aspects in achieving the need to belong. The replete of the first aspect which is the desire to have a continuing and lasting relationship and have a context of concern and caring in achieving the need to belong affects the cognitive tasks of the person affiliated according to their reactions.
It suggests that individuals who frequently interact with others will also exchange more benefits and costs.RELATIONSHIP/ DATING ADVICE For High School and College Students
Material or non-material things that each one gives will become costs on the part of the giver while these will become benefits on the part of the receiver. This entails that if the things which they usually give in the course of their interaction, were also the things that they require in accomplishing the complex cognitive tasks, frequent interactions will affect those tasks.
These two theories will help the students especially those students who are in romantic relationship. These theories show the effects of romantic relationship in the academic performance of the students. Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual paradigm of this study. The dependent variable is the Academic Performance. Specifically, it will answer the following questions: What is the frequency of the respondents to go on dating with boyfriends and girlfriends?
What is the level of academic performance of the respondents? Is there a significance relationship between romantic relationship and academic performance? Hypotheses of the Study HO1. There is no significant relationship between romantic relationship and academic performance.
Scope and Limitation This quantitative study was conducted in one of the private high school in Digos City excluded in this study were the public schools here in the province of Davao del Sur. This study gave focus only 50 Grade 12 - Senior High School students who are involved in romantic relationship.
Excluded in this study are elementary, junior high school, grade 11 and college students. This study was conducted in the first semester of the school year — Finding of this study would also raise the awareness of the parents of the students who are synchronizing their time on both academic works and romantic aspects.
The result of this study would alarm the students and raise their awareness on the effects of romantic relationship on the academic performance of a student especially on its negative effects.
The result of this study will serve as a reference that will benefit the future researchers who aim to conduct a research similar to this study. Definition of Terms For the better understanding of this study the following terms are defined operationally and conceptually.
Senior High School this refers to the grade twelve senior high school students who are involved in romantic relationship. The second is on the dependent variable which is the academic performance. The third part, determines or to see if there is relationships exist between romantic relationship and academic performance of individuals and its effect.
In the last part of the chapter, the researchers try to evaluate previous studies related to the topic of this study.
Romantic Relationship Humans, particularly adolescents get involve in romantic relationships with variety of reasons. Rest assured of the love and care given by the persons close to them, they are secured with the trust and confidence that they are acceptable to individuals whom they can depend on for the satisfaction of their needs. Raman stated that being in romantic relationship involves physical contact which causes chemical arousal to the persons involved and at the same time gain love and confidence in which they are longing for.
This is the time for curiosity and explorations in choosing and having a partner, and explores this kind of curiosity that somehow leads to romantic relationship.
However, this kind of relationship may not lead to a pleasant and intense love affair. Consequently, half of all teens have been in a dating relationship and nearly one third of all teens have been in a serious relationship Teenage Research Unlimited, as cited in Luqman, According to Furmanromantic relationships become more and more significant to adolescents in their social world as they also develop from puberty towards late adolescence.
This show how prevalent is romantic relationship among adolescents. Luqman said that an adolescent relationship plays an important role to adolescents as it develops the ability for committed relationships.
An article of Barber and Eccles as cited by Luqman, talked about the importance of romantic relationships to adolescent development and its long lasting 12 effects on self-confidence. It affirmed that romantic relationship teaches moral values on romance, intimate relationships and sexuality. It is an urge to satisfy goal object p.
Provided a positive romantic relationship, adolescents would strive hard on performing well in studies to bring a brighter future in their relationship. In contrast, Dulmen, Goncy, Haydon and Collins investigated the processes of romantic relationship in predicting externalizing behaviour problems during adolescence. It showed that during adolescence and early adulthood relationship security can be associated with lower levels of externalizing behaviour problems where this inverse relation was found to be stronger for early adults.
In another study, Brendgen, Vitaro, Markiewicz and Bukowskiit was examined whether early adolescents' involvement in a romantic relationship would be differentially related to adjustment, depending on their relations with the same-sex peer group. Three hundred and twelve 7th graders were assessed with respect to their social acceptance by same-sex peers, involvement in reciprocal same-sex friendships, 13 involvement in romantic relationships, self-esteem, antisocial behavior, and academic performance.
Independently of same-sex peer acceptance, however, romantic involvement was negatively related to academic performance, albeit only for girls. The parents answered scales on parental comfort, romantic relations and dating rules whilst the adolescences answered on psychological control used by parents and romantic relationship qualities.
Jerves, Rober and Enzlin investigated that romantic relationships are a central aspect of the life of adolescents and have an important influence on the socio- affective and sexual development. The review encompasses the analysis of 36 studies on romantic relationships in adolescence. The analysis of the published data was guided by five central characteristics of romantic relationships of adolescents: The data set comprised of adults years. It was found that four romantic relationship qualities were positively associated with identity achievement and not with friendship qualities.
Numerous individuals who attained adulthood criteria were interrelated positively to romantic relationship qualities. However, achieved adulthood criteria were linked negatively to friendship qualities. La Greca and Harrisonexamined multiple levels of adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including general peer relations, and qualities of best friendships and romantic relationships as predictors of symptoms of depression and social anxiety.
Peer crowd affiliations high and low statuspositive qualities in best friendships, and the presence of a dating relationship protected adolescents against feelings of social anxiety, whereas relational victimization and negative interactions in best friendships predicted high social anxiety. Findings indicate that multiple aspects of adolescents' social relations uniquely contribute to feelings of internal distress.
In a sample of 1, understudies, people in committed relationships experienced fewer mental health problems and were less likely to be overweight. Examination of 2 models suggested that being in a committed romantic relationship decreases problematic outcomes largely through a reduction in sexual partners, which in turn decreases both risky behaviors and problematic outcomes.
Shulman and Scharfstudied the role of age, gender, and dating experience in adolescent romantic behaviours and perceptions. In addition, the linkage between the quality of relationships with parents and peers, and affective intensity with a romantic partner was investigated. Interviews were held with Israeli adolescents, who also completed questionnaires assessing romantic behaviors, romantic perceptions, and quality of relationships with their romantic partner, parents, and a same-gender close friend.
Older adolescents were more likely than younger adolescents to have a romantic partner. Romantic perceptions pertaining to companionship and excitement were less frequent among older adolescents.
Depression Adolescent romantic relationships were associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with behavioral problems of transporting them remain unclear.
Romantic involvement during adolescence, especially in early adolescence, was associated with more depressive symptoms and behavioral problems. Breaks in romantic relationships were a major factor in producing the negative emotional and behavioral consequences.
Attributions of Academic Performance among Third Year and Fourth Year Biology Major Students
Romantically involved girls 16 experienced higher levels of depressive symptoms, while romantically involved boys had higher levels of externalizing behaviors, compared to their non-dating peers. And also, in adolescence, romantic activities, experiences, and relationships are associated with depressive symptoms Davila, Break - Up Adolescents, who were rejected, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination.
Rejectors, on the other hand, experienced the reputational cost of being perceived by others as cruel. Exploratory data analyses revealed that women more than men reported experiencing negative emotions after a breakup, particularly feeling sad, confused, and scared. Academic Performance According to Steinmayr, Meibner, Weiddinger and Wirthweinthat academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university.
School systems mostly define cognitive goals that either apply across multiple subject areas such as critical 17 thinking or include the acquisition of knowledge and understanding in a specific intellectual domain such as numeracy, literacy, science, history.
Steinmayr, Meibner, Weiddinger and Wirthweinalso added that, academic achievement should be considered to be a multifaceted construct that comprises different domains of learning. Because the field of academic achievement is very wide- ranging and covers a broad variety of educational outcomes, the definition of academic achievement depends on the indicators used to measure it.
Among the many criteria that indicate academic achievement, there are very general indicators such as procedural and declarative knowledge acquired in an educational system, more curricular-based criteria such as grades or performance on an educational achievement test, and cumulative indicators of academic achievement such as educational degrees and certificates. All criteria have in common that they represent intellectual endeavors and thus, more or less, mirror the intellectual capacity of a person.
The outcome of the investigations shows that being in a romantic relationship while in school is essentially connected with class absences, yet not with grade point average. In the study of Giordano, Phelps, Manning and Longmorethe study was conducted to examine the extent of a student in which they value achievement and 18 ambition with their romantic partners which gives good effects on their academic achievement.
Around undergraduates were assigned in random to complete an academic problem, relationship problems, depression or anxiety. The results revealed the important differences for preferred processes of change as a function of a problem type. In general, processes of change were more preferred for depression, anxiety and relationship problems that for academic problems. Parent and Peer Influences Giordano, Phelps, Manning and Longmoreparent and peer influences on academic achievement are well documented, but little research has examined links to romantic involvement during the adolescent period.
The results on peer influence processes, that this agreement reveals a tendency to select similar partners, but may involve social influence processes as well. Yet, little is known about the overlaps between the online and offline worlds. Facebook intrusion was linked to relationship dissatisfaction, via jealous cognitions and surveillance behaviors. However, it is negative on the other hand because it will cause distraction in studies Stefan, Romantic Relationship and Academic Performance According to Collins as cited in Huggins,it is stated that romantic relationships bring people together.
They allow bonds to be formed that can influence the behavioral aspects of adolescence involved. Relationships can be described as expressions of affection, including emotional, physical, and sexual.
Romantic relationships are very common for young people and can often times alter an adolescents moods and their way life. These constant changes may influence things such as academic achievement. Moreover, theorists suggested that romantic relationship has a great role in the academic performance of adolescents. Theorists suggested that romantic relationship has a great role in the academic performance of adolescents. In this way, adolescents who are more knowledgeable can help in the cognitive development of their partner.
However, romantic relationships do not always behave in a positive way. There are instances in which romantic relationship may harm adolescents and because of this, they need adults who will guide them in developing healthy relationships Luqman, This situation implies frequent break-ups which cause anxiety among adolescents.
In another way, romantic relationship gives more negative effects on the academic performance of adolescents. Teens nowadays consider romantic relationship as the number one source of stress Manning et al. It results from the break-ups or conflicts with partner. Myers also said that: For university students, relationships consume much of life.
How much of your waking life is spent talking with people? Inthe average American year-old sent or received text messages per month pp. The time spent with the partner would consume much time that must be allotted for studying; taking into consideration the time management of a student being involved in romantic relationship affects the academic performance.
As stated by Crissey in her study about impact of romantic relationship on high school girls, there is really a challenge in balancing romantic relationship and academic performance in a teenager's life. It gives pressure on how to maintain the romantic side and the academic works as well.
Crissey then added that having a romantic affair especially when you are just a student would not just give a source of stress but also a disturbance. Having a 22 romantic relationship is really disturbing because a student will deal on managing time between the school and in the romantic side that somehow leads to give academic works a lesser priority.
Stress is a continuous feeling of worry about work or personal life that prevents someone from relaxing. Campbell as cited by Crissey,pointed out that stress is a condition or effect that is bad and can cause some problems.
For example, students who are having any romantic affair will have a higher percentage of stress than those who don't have because instead of focusing to their academic work and academic stresses, they also commit their time to their relationship.
They also described how someone or something frustrates individuals when it stands between them and their goals. This would cause a dilemma on irreconcilable demands, opportunity, needs or goals.
They added that delays, lack of resources, losses, failure and discrimination are the primary cause of aggravation. In conclusion, relationships and academics cannot be joined together.
According to Connolly, Craig, Goldberg and Depler as cited in Huggins,stated that by late adolescence, most American teens have had at least one romantic relationship. It was noted that adolescence during this time start merging in mixed-gender groups and allows opportunity for cross-gender associations which eventually lead to a romantic relationship.
The article explains how, during adolescence and into older ages, students begin to become more involved with peers of the opposite sex and this eventually leads to the base and formation of these romantic relationships.
On the other hand, studies about romantic relationship and its effects to academic performance revealed different results. The study of Luqman on romantic relationship and its effects on academic performance, identity and self-esteem of students attending B.
University and students studying 10th grade Educator 24 High School at Department of Pschology Bahauddin Zakriya University Multan revealed that there is not relationship between the grade point average and dating status of adolescents. The variables considered were dating status, level of involvement, grade point average, identity status and self-esteem.
This would make his data less accurate because initial level academic performance of the respondents was not recorded. The purpose of having an initial level of academic performance is to have a comparison of before and after situations which will predict whether the academic performance of the respondent has increased or decreased during the course of romantic relationship.
He then suggested that initial levels of academic achievement of students should be considered in the future research about romantic relationship and its effects to academic performance to get more accurate results.
Phamstudied about the relationships between dating and college performance of Loyola University students who were aged between years old. It was hypothesized that dating and involvement will result in a lower grade point average. It implies that dating and involvement in romantic relationship shows no significant relationship on academic performance of college students. Findings describe significant effect of romantic relationship on academic performance. It was also found out that a student who is involved in romantic relationship for more than two years have better score as those involved for 3 to 6 months.
It was further found that the basic characteristic of the individuals who are most successful at love is high self —esteem. It has been determined that those high in self-esteem experience romantic love more as been found in the number of years of being attached to each partner.
The result of the study showed that higher frequency in dating would imply a lower academic performance because most of the romantic experiences showed higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels in academic motivation. In another study, a dissertation of Crissey focused on the differences of gender on the high school academic outcomes which were influenced by romantic relationships.
The study found out that when students divided their attention to education and romance, there was a negative outcome on the academic performance especially when they take too much concern on their romantic relationships. This situation occurs mostly on girls because of the school romantic climate where romance is more valued.
The increased risk of sexual activity mainly affects this situation Crissey, In another study, entitled The Peer Group as a Context for the Development of Young Adolescent Motivation and Achievement by Ryan states that adolescence marks the beginning of a downward trend in motivation to do well in achievement and academics.
Research shows that these changes are known to come with the ages of people during adolescence and understanding that they are simply changes in life. For example, since adolescence already face common changes in mood and how well they progress in academics, adding could a relationship can only cause a negative effect as well. A dissertation of Stefan showed that there is really a social pressure for teenage girls who are involved in dating.
She also found out this societal pressure means that girls are engaged in this kind of dating situation merely because of some influences peers, magazines, televisions, etc. Sometimes, if a girl does not engage herself in dating, some may considered her as weird, maybe because in the western society today, there are no more things such as Maria Clara's, which refers to those who are a little bit conscious in dating as well as engaging in romantic relationships.
She said that majority of the people would expect girls to already have a dating partner especially when girls reach into their adolescent stage. Stefan also added that this dating is usually considered as a threshold or the first step towards romantic relationships.
However, it is negative on the other hand because it will just cause distraction. The findings of the study made by Phelps noted that the influence of partners, parents and peers of African American Youth to their school achievement. He concluded that effects of academic achievement vary on race. Part of the result of his study is that peers also affect to the academic performance of the respondents. The result of the study of Phelps implies that factors assumed to affect academic performance of students such as personal relationships vary in each race.
A lot of research has been made about this topic but most of these studies center on Euro-American youths or mostly Western societies.
Western culture has differences to Asian culture especially on the social aspects. Example would be perceptions on dating. In connection with this, our study will focus on the effects of romantic relationship on the academic performance of Filipino students particularly, in the Cor Jesu College — Senior High School students.
Since we have known that teachers in Cor Jesu College have 28 higher expectations of their students, increased workloads, challenging exercises, projects, paper works and assignments are given to the students. Considering the romantic relationships involved and the amount of pressure given to the students by their teachers, we assume that there will be an effect of romantic relationship on the academic performance of the students. This research includes research design, respondents, sampling procedure, measures, data gathering, and data analysis.
The first part, will discuss the research design used in the study, second is the respondents of the study.
Next in the discussion are the sampling procedures, measures and the data gathering procedure. Lastly, the chapter ends by discussion the data analysis used to analyse and interpret the data. Research Design The study used a quantitative design specifically descriptive — correctional method.
Descriptive method involves purposive process of gathering, analysing and classifying data. According to Aggarwaldescriptive research is devoted to the gathering of information about prevailing conditions or situations for the purpose of description and interpretation.
Moreover, Fox and Bayat in its essence, descriptive students are utilized to depict different aspects of the phenomenon. Additionally, Rybarova explained that this design would help the researchers determine patterns of relationship that may exist and measures the durability of the relationship.
Hence, this method will be utilized in presenting the relationship 29 30 between romantic relationship and academic performance of the Grade 12 — Senior High School students in Cor Jesu College. Y — at Digos City. A sample population from Grade 12 students served as respondents of this study who are in romantic relationship that affecting their academic performance particularly concerning their grades. The respondents are chosen over other grade levels because it is believed that they are sequentially matured students who can respond well to the study surveys that were utilized in this study.
A total of Grade 12 students in Cor Jesu College were enrolled in this grade level. Out the entire population, there were 50 respondents who took part in the study. These 50 respondents were asked to answer the survey questionnaires.
Sampling Procedure The researchers made use of the purposive sampling method in the selection of the respondents. Crossman stated that a purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling wherein respondents were chosen based on their characteristics and the objective of the study. Purposive sampling, also known as judgmental, selective or subjective sampling, is a type of non-probability sampling technique.
Since the study was 31 focused on a particular group students involved in romantic relationshipSenior High School — Grade 12 students who were involved in a relationship in the S. Y — became the respondents of the study. And there are only 50 students who met this criterion; these 50 students were the respondents of the study.
Measures The researchers adapted a survey questionnaire from Navarez et. The first part of the questionnaire will regard the profile of the respondent i.