Silvio Berlusconi - Wikipedia
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He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time and appointed as Prime Minister following the parliamentary electionswhen Forza Italia gained a relative majority a mere three months after having been launched. However, his cabinet collapsed after nine months, due to internal disagreements among the coalition parties. In the April snap parliamentary electionsBerlusconi was defeated by the centre-left candidate Romano Prodi.
In the May parliamentary electionshe was again the centre-right candidate for Prime Minister and won against the centre-left candidate Francesco Rutelli. Berlusconi then formed his second and third cabinets, until Berlusconi was leader of the centre-right coalition in the April parliamentary electionswhich he lost by a very narrow margin, his opponent again being Romano Prodi. He was re-elected in the parliamentary elections of April following the collapse of Prodi's government and sworn in for a third time as Prime Minister on 8 May After losing his majority in parliament amid growing fiscal problems related to the European debt crisisBerlusconi resigned as Prime Minister on 16 November Although he initially planned to run for a fifth term as Prime Minister,    as part of the agreement with the Lega Nord he would instead plan to lead the coalition without becoming Prime Minister.
Berlusconi's political career began inwhen he entered politics, reportedly admitting to Indro Montanelli and Enzo Biagi that he was forced to do so to avoid imprisonment.
Alcuni aspetti della politica di Giolitti: tra liberalismo e democrazia
His career was racked with controversies and trials ; amongst these was his failure to honour his promise to sell his personal assets in Mediasetthe largest television broadcaster in Italy, in order to dispel any perceived conflicts of interest.
In the early s, the Pentapartito — the five governing parties, Christian Democracy Democrazia Cristianathe Italian Socialist Partythe Italian Social-Democratic Partythe Italian Republican Party and the Italian Liberal Party — lost much of their electoral strength almost overnight due to a large number of judicial investigations concerning the financial corruption of many of their foremost members see the Mani Pulite affair.
This led to a general expectation that upcoming elections would be won by the Democratic Party of the Leftthe heirs to the former Italian Communist Partyand their Alliance of Progressives coalition — unless an alternative arose. On 26 JanuaryBerlusconi announced his decision to enter politics, "enter the field", in his own words presenting his own political party, Forza Italiaon a platform focused on defeating the Communists. His political aim was to convince the voters of the Pentapartito, who were shocked and confused by Mani Pulite scandals, that Forza Italia offered both a fresh uniqueness and the continuation of the pro-western free market policies followed by Italy since the end of the Second World War.
Shortly after he decided to enter the political arena, investigators into the Mani Pulite affair were said to be close to issuing warrants for the arrest of Berlusconi and senior executives of his business group. During his political career Berlusconi repeatedly stated that the Mani Pulite investigations were led by communist prosecutors who wanted to establish a soviet -style government in Italy.
As a result, Forza Italia was allied with two parties that were not allied with each other. Berlusconi launched a massive campaign of electoral advertisements on his three TV networks, and preparing his top advertising salesmen with seminars and screen tests, of whom 50 were subsequently elected despite an absence legislative experience.
He was appointed Prime Minister inbut his term in office was short because of the inherent contradictions in his coalition: Fall of the Berlusconi I cabinet In Decemberfollowing the leaking to the press of news of a fresh investigation by Milan magistrates, Umberto Bossileader of the Lega Nordleft the coalition claiming that the electoral pact had not been respected, forcing Berlusconi to resign from office and shifting the majority's weight to the centre-left.
Lega Nord also resented the fact that many of its MPs had switched to Forza Italia, allegedly lured by promises of more prestigious portfolios. Berlusconi remained as caretaker prime minister for a little over a month, until his replacement by a technocratic government headed by Lamberto Dini.
Rome: Inclusive Leadership which Values and Leverages Diversity
Dini had been a key minister in the Berlusconi cabinet, and Berlusconi said the only way he would support a technocratic government would be if Dini headed it. In the end, however, Dini was supported by most of the opposition parties, but not by Forza Italia and Lega Nord. Italian general election, InBerlusconi ran again, as leader of the right-wing coalition House of Freedoms Italian: Berlusconi's success in the May general election led to him becoming Prime Minister once more, with the coalition receiving On the television interviews programme Porta a Portaduring the last days of the electoral campaign, Berlusconi created a powerful impression on the public by undertaking to sign a so-called Contratto con gli Italiani English: Contract with the Italiansan idea copied outright by his advisor Luigi Crespi from Newt Gingrich 's Contract with America introduced six weeks before the US Congressional election.
Berlusconi committed in this contract to improve several aspects of the Italian economy and life.
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Secondly, he promised to halve the unemployment rate. Thirdly, he committed to financing and developing a massive new public works programme. Fourthly, he promised to raise the minimum monthly pension rate to euros. Fifthly, he would reduce crime by introducing police officers to patrol all local zones and areas in Italy's major cities. Berlusconi II cabinet Berlusconi addressing a joint session of the U. Congress in Opposition parties claim Berlusconi was not able to achieve the goals he promised in his Contratto con gli Italiani.
Some of his partners in government, especially the National Alliance and the Union of Christian and Centre Democratsadmitted the Government fell short of the promises made in the agreement, attributing the failure to an unforeseeable downturn in global economic conditions. Berlusconi himself consistently asserted that he achieved all the goals of the agreement, and said his Government provided un miracolo continuo a continuous miracle that made all 'earlier governments pale' by comparison.
Alcuni aspetti della politica di Giolitti: tra liberalismo e democrazia
According to Ricolfi, the other four promises were not honoured, in particular the undertakings on tax simplification and crime reduction. In common with many other European governing groups, in the elections to the European Parliamentgaining As an outcome of these results the other coalition parties, whose electoral results were more satisfactory, asked Berlusconi and Forza Italia for greater influence in the government's political line.
Berlusconi's coalition held only two of the regions Lombardy and Veneto up for re-election. Berlusconi after some hesitation, then presented to the President of the Republic a request for the dissolution of his government on 20 April On 23 April, he formed a new government with the same allies, reshuffling ministers and amending the government programme.
A key point demanded by the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats and to a lesser extent by National Alliance for their continued support was that the strong focus on tax reduction be reduced. Attempt to reform the Italian constitution A key point in the Berlusconi government's programme was a planned reform of the Italian Constitutionwhich Berlusconi considered to be 'inspired by the Soviets ',  an issue the coalition parties themselves initially had significantly different opinions about.
The Lega Nord insisted on a federalist reform devolution of more power to the regions as a condition for remaining in the coalition. The National Alliance party pushed for a so-called 'strong premiership' more powers to the Prime Ministerintended as a counterweight to any federalist reform, in order to preserve the integrity of the nation.
The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats asked for a proportional electoral law that would not damage small parties, and was generally more willing to discuss compromises with the moderate wing of the opposition. Difficulties in negotiating an agreement caused some internal unrest in the Berlusconi government inbut they were mostly overcome and the law including devolution of powers to the regions, Federal Senate and "strong premiership" was passed by the Senate in April ; it was slightly modified by the Chamber of Deputies in Octoberand again in Octoberand finally approved by the Senate on 16 Novemberwith a narrow majority.
The tradition handed down seven kings: In BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic. In the wake of Julius Caesar 's rise and death in the first century B.
The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustusbegan a golden age of peace and prosperity. The Italian Peninsula was named Italia and, as the territory of the city of Rome, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina ruler of the provinces ". At its height under Trajanit covered 5 million square kilometres. The Western Empireunder the pressure of the barbarian invasionseventually dissolved in AD, when its last Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacerwhile the Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years.
After the fall of the Western Roman EmpireItaly fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdomand, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian.
The invasion of another Germanic tribethe Lombardslate in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years. The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy.
Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former Ghibellines or with the latter Guelphs from momentary convenience.
Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy Seelocal communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order. In a league of city-states, the Lombard Leaguedefeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnanothus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities.
Flag of the Italian Navydisplaying the coat of arms of the most prominent maritime republics: VeniceGenoaPisa and Amalfi In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient.
They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire.
All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power.
Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracythe relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement. Venice and Genoa were Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewellery.
The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned. The republics were heavily involved in the Crusadesproviding support but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars.
In Sardiniathe former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Giudicatialthough some parts of the island became controlled by Genoa or Pisa until the Aragonese annexation in the 15th century.
The Black Death pandemic of left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. Early Modern Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in